The increased use of digital platforms in everyday lives across the world is leading to a divide between under-connected nations from hyper-digitalized societies
The Digital Economy Report released by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) shows that China and the USA have done the most to harvest the digital economy and now dominate the rest of the world and leading to an unequal state of e-commerce. The two countries host seven global “super-platform” companies – Microsoft, Apple, Amazon, Google, Facebook, Tencent and Alibaba that account for two-thirds of the total market value of the seventy largest digital platforms with Naspers as the only African company in the group.
Google and Facebook collected 65% of the $135 billion spent on internet advertising in 2017, while, in Australia, Google took 95% of the “search advertising” revenue while Facebook took 46% of the “display advertising” revenue.
Europe’s share of the digital economy is only 4% while Africa and Latin America combine for 1%. In Africa, progress has also been uneven with four countries – Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa accounting for 60% of digital entrepreneurship activity. They are followed by a second tier of Ghana, Morocco, Senegal, Tanzania, Tunisia and Uganda (with a combined 20%)
The Report showed that the evolving digital economy has a major impact on achieving sustainable development goals (SDG’s) and calls for governments in developing nations to focus efforts on things like:
- Skills development & re-education e.g. consider that in the Western world, you can do a whole university degree online.
- Revising policies on data privacy & sharing e.g. have restricted local data sharing pools and have tariffs on cross-border data.
- Revising competition regulations e.g. curb the tendency where platform companies tend to capture/acquire young promising companies in the developing world.
- Taxation e.g. developing country governments should seek to tax digital platform companies.
- Employment e.g. by setting minimum wages & work conditions for gig-economy workers.
- Break down silos: no longer think of government as being separate from academia, private sector, civil society and tech communities.
- Also, while the US and Europe have divergent views on data protection, it cites a survey which found that Kenyans had the least concerns about data privacy (at 44%).
Speaking at an unveiling of the Report in Nairobi, Dr. Monica Kerretts-Makau said that the world is trending towards a captive society where you have to be on a platform to transact in an economy and that presents problems and opportunities in the African context.
The 2019 issue of the Report, that was previously focused on the “information economy”, can be downloaded here.
EDIT June 2020: The Kenya Revenue Authority announced the introduction of Value-Added Tax (VAT) on digital marketplace suppliers in the Finance Act 2019. Member of the public can send their views on the draft proposal by June 15 to firstname.lastname@example.org.